Colombia

Approximately 90 percent of all emeralds in the world are mined in Colombia.

About Country

    Continent

    America

    Capital

    Bogota

    Population

    50,882,891

    World share 

    0.7 %

    Land area

    1,109,500 km²

    Official Languages

    - Spanish

    Unofficial Languages

    Currency

    COP

    Economy rating

    95

    Economy GDP

    29,561 millions USD

    ВВП на человека

    581 USD

Democracy Index

7.04

Flawed
democracy

*

Electoral process and pluralism

9.17
9.17

Functioning of government

6.43
6.43

Political participation

6.67
6.67

Political culture

5
5

Civil liberties

7.94
7.94

    Crime Rate

    25.3

    Normal

    Unemployment

    14.2 %

    High unemployment

Expense and Salary

3.4

Middling

*

Average salary

0.69
0.69

Average expense

5.04
5.04

Average rent price

4.46
4.46

    Average salary

    482 USD

    Average expense

    385 USD

    Average rent price

    249 USD

Immigration

    Immigration difficulty

    Normal

    Recommended Savings

    3,804 USD

    Double citizenship

    Forbidden

    Official site

    Immigration official website

    Compulsory exams

    Spanish proficiency test and Colombian history, geography and constitution test.

    Passport rating

    41 Amount of countries: 132

Immigration options

Immigration typeRequired TimeFee
Marriagefrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
2 years (for citizenship)
40 USD
Employeefrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
40 USD
Studentfrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
40 USD
Businessfrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
40 USD
Investmentsfrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
40 USD


Marriage

Immigration feeImmigration Time
40 USDfrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
2 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee; - General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- A document confirming the marriage.
Additional Information:
When you marry a citizen of the country, you have the right to a residence permit.
Only an official marriage is possible.

Employee

Immigration feeImmigration Time
40 USDfrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee; - General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- An invitation from the employer and a work permit.
Additional Information:
Immigration to this country for the purpose of obtaining a job is possible only after obtaining a work visa, which can be of 2 main types: temporary and resident visa.
A temporary work visa can be obtained by a foreign person who has a contract concluded with an entrepreneur from Colombia.
A resident visa is issued to foreigners who:
- plan to stay in Colombia for an unlimited amount of time
- have a visa of a husband or wife of a Colombian citizen
- have a satellite visa of a Colombian citizen who has been continuously residing in the country for five years.

Student

Immigration feeImmigration Time
40 USDfrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee; - General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- A document confirming the transfer.
Additional Information:
Immigration for the purpose of study is possible only after obtaining a student visa.
It is issued for a period of twelve months, after which it can be repeatedly extended.

Business

Immigration feeImmigration Time
40 USDfrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee; - General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- A document confirming the opening of a business.
Additional Information:
A business visa is issued to those who visit the country in order to establish a business.
The permit period is 3 years. To receive a document, a person needs to confirm his occupation, indicate the type of activity and submit an invitation from a Colombian company.

Investments

Immigration feeImmigration Time
40 USDfrom 5 to 15 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee; - General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- A document confirming the investment.
Additional Information:
Immigration to the territory of Colombia is possible by investing your own money in the economy of this state.
It is important to keep in mind that the amount must be at least 100,000 USD.

Taxes

Taxation in Colombia is determined by the Congress of Colombia, the assembly of each department and each city council, which determine what taxes can be levied and what rates can be applied.
Main taxes: VAT, financial transaction tax, property tax, income tax, payroll tax.

VAT
Value added tax (VAT) is the main indirect tax. The tax rate is 19%.
VAT is general and simplified.
The first relates to businesses with estimated assets of more than 68 million Colombian pesos (34,000 USD).
The second refers to those who have property less than this amount.
Although both are required to pay the same percentage, simplified tax payers are not required to keep separate VAT records or issue invoices.

Tax on financial transactions
The tax rate is 0.4%. It applies to all financial transactions, including ATM withdrawals, electronic transfers, Internet banking, bank transfers and bank checks, term deposit money, overdrafts, installment loans, securities insurance obligations.

Property tax
The rate is 1% of the total property of people.

Income tax
Income tax must be paid by all local and foreign companies, the tax rate is 30%.
For Colombian citizens and foreign resident citizens, income tax is calculated based on a system of graduated marginal tax rates.
- from 0 to 9,340 USD - 0%
- from 9 340 to 11 340 USD - 19%
- from 11,340 to 27,351 USD - 28%
- from 27,351 USD - 33%

Payroll taxes
Both the employer and the employee are subject to monthly payroll taxes on the gross salary of the employee as follows: Employer:
Medical insurance - 8.5%
Occupational risk - 0.348% - 8.7%
ICFB (Family Welfare) — 3%
CAJA (Family Compensation Funds) — 4%
SENA (National Vocational Training Service) - 2%
Pension Fund - 12%
Vacation - 4.17%.

Worker:
Medical insurance - 4%
Pension fund - 4%.

Education

The education system in Colombia is divided into 4 stages: preschool, primary, secondary and higher education.

Preschool education
Most children over one year old attend kindergartens and kindergartens in "Hogares Comunitarios" (public houses), where mothers from the community take care of their children. There are also a large number of private kindergartens.

Elementary school
Primary education is the first stage of basic education and is provided free of charge in public schools. It begins at the age of six and lasts for five years (grades 1 to 5). There are various types of schools that provide such education. Some schools offer only primary education, others also provide pre-school or secondary education.

Secondary education
Secondary education is divided into basic secondary (grades 6 to 9) and higher secondary (grades 10 and 11).
To enter school (grades 6-9), completion of primary education is required, there are usually no entrance exams or other additional requirements. Students study the same compulsory subjects as before, but the total number of contact hours increases from 25 to 30 per week. Upon completion of the program, graduates can receive a certificate of basic secondary education.
The transition to the upper secondary school (grades 10-11) usually requires completion of basic education. Full secondary education is not compulsory. Higher secondary education includes different streams. There is a general academic stream and a technical stream. The academic program focuses on further specialization in subjects such as natural sciences, social sciences, humanities or foreign languages, while the technical program includes theoretical and practical courses in specific professions such as trade, agriculture, information technology or industry. Graduates of both programs are eligible for admission to higher education institutions.
Vocational education offers various specialties (technical, business, art and others, including purely academic programs), and is mainly available in urban areas.

Higher education
University education is divided into undergraduate and postgraduate studies and is regulated by the 30th Law of 1992. Most university degrees are designed for 5 years. Technical education usually lasts 3 years. Postgraduate education includes specializations, master's and doctoral programs. Admission is carried out using the grades obtained at the national school final exam.

Healthcare

Colombia's healthcare system is considered one of the best in the world. The World Health Organization ranks it 22nd among the most effective in the world. Colombia's hospitals are among the best in South America.
Quality Colombian healthcare is widely available in all major cities and towns, although the number and quality of clinics and medical services is declining in remote rural areas.

Colombia has one public and many private health insurance plans.

The state plan is called EPS. To qualify for EPS, you must have a resident cédula (identity card). The cost of the insurance premium for pensioners is 12.5% of what you declare as your retirement income in EPS. The maximum age for applying for EPS insurance coverage is not set.
EPS state medical insurance has a three-level system for calculating surcharges for laboratory tests, imaging procedures, visits to specialists and medications. These rates change in January of each year. The 2021 levels are $1, $3.75 and $9.80.

By law, all residents of Colombia must have the same basic insurance, including medical, dental and ophthalmological care. If you need additional services, you can purchase a private policy.

Private Health Care Plan
If you want the freedom to choose your own doctor or specialist, if you need a policy that covers more than the basic set, then the best option is to cover with a private plan. Private plans require you to have EPS as the basis.

The maximum age for initial registration in most private health insurance plans is 60 years. Your insurance premiums will vary depending on the operator you choose, the level of coverage you choose, and your medical history. It is best to choose the same company for your private plan as for your EPS.

Healthcare in Colombia is relatively inexpensive, especially compared to the United States. As a result of this combination of quality and cost, Colombia's healthcare system strengthens the country's reputation in the field of medical tourism.

Climate

Colombia is a country in the north—west of South America, with territories in Central America. The capital is Bogota. It borders Brazil and Venezuela in the east, Ecuador and Peru in the south, and Panama in the west.
It borders Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic by sea. It is washed by the Caribbean Sea in the north and the Pacific Ocean in the west. In terms of population, the country ranks 2nd in South America after Brazil, 28th in the world.

Colombia's climate is tropical along the coast and eastern lowlands, and cooler in the highlands and Andes.
The topographical diversity of the country defines three recognized climatic zones:
- a high–altitude cold zone located at an altitude of more than 2000 meters with average annual temperatures in the range of 13C - 17C
- a temperate zone located from 1000 m to 2000 m with an average annual temperature of about 18C
- a tropical zone that covers all areas below 1000 m with an average annual temperature of 24C – 27C.
The average annual precipitation is 2,630 mm, but there is significant variability throughout the country. On the western coast of the Pacific Ocean and in the interior of the Andes, the greatest amount of precipitation falls (approximately 6 000 – 7 000 mm per year), while in the drier steppe climate in the north and southwest, less than 500 mm per year falls.
The Andes regions experience rains from April to June and from October to December, while the northern Caribbean region, due to its proximity to the equator, experiences a single rainy season from May to October.

The diversity of life forms and habitats in Colombia has always amazed observers.
Approximately 10% of the world's endemic plant species grow in the country.
Mangrove forests predominate on the Caribbean coast, moist evergreen vegetation on the northern lowlands and the Pacific lowlands, and savannas in the northeast and north.
The fauna of the country is also rich and diverse — butterflies, piranhas, monkeys, bears, jaguars, condors, snakes and hummingbirds.

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