Egypt

Egypt has over 100 million inhabitants, making it the most populated in the Middle East.

About Country

    Continent

    Africa

    Capital

    Cairo

    Population

    102,334,404

    World share 

    1.3 %

    Land area

    995,450 km²

    Official Languages

    - Arabic

    Unofficial Languages

    - English
    - French

    Currency

    EGP

    Economy rating

    34

    Economy GDP

    394,284 millions USD

    ВВП на человека

    3,853 USD

Democracy Index

2.93

Authoritarian

*

Electoral process and pluralism

1.33
1.33

Functioning of government

3.21
3.21

Political participation

3.33
3.33

Political culture

5
5

Civil liberties

1.76
1.76

    Crime Rate

    2.6

    Safe zone

    Unemployment

    5.7 %

    Normal unemployment

Expense and Salary

4.65

Middling

*

Average salary

0.36
0.36

Average expense

7.74
7.74

Average rent price

5.84
5.84

    Average salary

    250 USD

    Average expense

    251 USD

    Average rent price

    190 USD

Immigration

    Immigration difficulty

    Normal

    Recommended Savings

    2,643 USD

    Double citizenship

    Allowed

    Official site

    Immigration official website

    Compulsory exams

    Passport rating

    94 Amount of countries: 53

Immigration options

Immigration typeRequired TimeFee
Marriagefrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
2 years (for citizenship)
10 USD
Employeefrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
10 years (for citizenship)
150 USD
Studentfrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
10 years (for citizenship)
80 USD
Family reunificationfrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
10 years (for citizenship)
80 USD
Businessfrom 14 to 90 days (paperwork)
10 years (for citizenship)
80 USD
Investmentsfrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
80 USD


Marriage

Immigration feeImmigration Time
10 USDfrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
2 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed application form;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- Marriage documents.
Additional Information:
You can immigrate to Egypt through marriage with a citizen of the country.
Only an official marriage is possible. To begin with, it is necessary to sign an ORPHI contract (an agreement of intent) in the presence of a lawyer, after which the bride receives a visa.

Employee

Immigration feeImmigration Time
150 USDfrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
10 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed application form;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- Contract with the employer.
Additional Information:
You can get a residence permit through employment.
To do this in Egypt, you must initially sign a contract with an employer. The latter will need recommendations from a potential employee from previous jobs, copies of his documents and a blood test.
Only after its approval, the Egyptian Ministry of Economy and Labor can issue a work permit for a foreigner.

Student

Immigration feeImmigration Time
80 USDfrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
10 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed application form;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- Certificate of enrollment.
Additional Information:
Upon admission to the university, a residence permit is issued.
A foreign student must submit a study contract with an Egyptian university in order to apply for a student visa. It is necessary to specify the duration and cost of training, the chosen specialty, and document the fact of payment for the first course. You will also need a financial guarantee from the student's parents or sponsors.

Family reunification

Immigration feeImmigration Time
80 USDfrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
10 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed application form;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- A document proving the relationship.
Additional Information:
If you have relatives in Egypt, then you can use the family reunification program.
Close relatives include parents, children, siblings, grandparents. At the same time, they must be citizens of the Republic of Armenia for at least five years at the time of moving their foreign relatives.

Business

Immigration feeImmigration Time
80 USDfrom 14 to 90 days (paperwork)
10 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed application form;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- Business plan;
- Documents confirming business registration.
Additional Information:
One of the most popular ways to immigrate to Egypt is to open your own business.
To register your own business in Egypt, you should submit documents to the Ministry of Economy and Labor.
The registration procedure is quite lengthy — about three months. The cost of administrative services will cost approximately 1200 USD.

Investments

Immigration feeImmigration Time
80 USDfrom 7 to 12 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed application form;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- Documents confirming the investment.
Additional Information:
If you invest in the Egyptian economy, you can get a residence permit in the country.
You will need to invest at least 300,000 Egyptian pounds in the economy, which is equivalent to 50,000 USD. The money should be placed in an Egyptian state bank.
You can also invest money in real estate.
The acquisition of a real estate object worth at least 50,000 USD automatically entitles its owner to obtain the status of a permanent resident of the Republic.

Taxes

The main taxes of Egypt are: taxation of individuals, income tax, value added tax, income tax at the source of payment, payment of services, real estate tax.

Taxation of individuals
Individual income tax is levied on the total net income of resident individuals in respect of income received in Egypt, as well as on income received outside Egypt.

Income tax is levied on a progressive scale:
- income from 0 to 15,000 EGP (Egyptian pounds) is exempt from taxation;
- income from 15,000 to 30,000 EGP is taxed at a rate of 2.5%;
- income from 30,000 to 45,000 EGP is taxed at a rate of 10%;
- income from 45,000 to 60,000 EGP is taxed at a rate of 15%;
- income from 60,000 to 200,000 EGP is taxed at a rate of 20%;
- income from 200,000 to 400,000 EGP is taxed at a rate of 22.5%;
- income over 400,000 EGP is taxed at a rate of 25%.

Income tax
Resident companies are taxed on income worldwide. Non-resident companies pay tax on profits received from their permanent representative offices in Egypt. The corporate income tax rate in Egypt is 22.5% of the company's net taxable profit. This rate applies to all types of activities, with the exception of oil companies, whose profits are taxed at a rate of 40.55%.

Value added tax
The standard rate of value added tax/VAT is 14%.
Also, in some cases, a reduced rate of 5% or even a rate of 0% may be applied.

Withholding income tax

Dividends
Withholding tax of 10% is imposed on dividends paid by Egyptian companies to non-resident corporate shareholders from shares not registered on the Egyptian stock Exchange. A fixed rate of 5% withholding tax is applied to dividends paid to non-resident corporate shareholders from shares listed on EGX.

Percentages
Interest on loans granted to private sector companies for a period of more than 3 years is exempt from withholding tax, and loans for a period of less than 3 years are subject to withholding tax of 20%.

Royalties
Royalty payments are subject to withholding tax of 20%.

Payment for services
Payments for services are taxed at the source of payment at the rate of 20%.

Real estate tax
The real estate tax is levied annually on all constructed real estate, with the exception of schools, orphanages, charitable organizations and private homes with a market value of less than 2,000,000 EGP. The tax also applies to land and buildings, with the exception of machinery and equipment. The real estate tax rate is 10% of the value of real estate.

Education

The education system in Egypt is divided into 4 parts: preschool education, primary school, secondary school and higher education.

Preschool education
Any child will be enrolled in an Egyptian kindergarten without any problems, even if he is not an Egyptian citizen. According to the age criterion, enrollment is also very flexible – you can give a baby there even from birth, but most parents take their children to kindergarten at the age of about two years. When children reach the age of four, they move on to study, although this is considered preschool education. The fact is that in order to enter an Egyptian primary school, it is necessary to complete a two-year course of preschool education (KG), which is the first step in education. Accordingly, the first year of this training (for four–year-olds) is called KG1, and the second (where five-year-olds study) is called KG2.

Elementary school
After preschool education, there is a second stage – primary school, or Primari, as it is called here. It covers the period from the first to the sixth grades inclusive. Enrollment in public schools takes place without mandatory testing and interviews, but in private schools it is usually mandatory and can vary greatly in level of complexity.

Secondary school
The third stage of education in Egypt is secondary school. It consists of two three–year training cycles - Secondaries (grades 7 to 9) and Preparatori (from grades 10 to 12). Public schools at the end of secondary education usually issue a certificate of the National level – that is, a national sample. In private language institutions, in addition to this certificate and the corresponding training program, you can choose a more complex international-level program and receive an international certificate upon completion. At the level of Preparation training in schools , specialization begins in three areas:
- humanitarian;
- mathematical;
- scientific.

Higher education
There are both private and public institutions of higher education in Egypt. Public higher education in Egypt is free, Egyptian students pay only the registration fee. Private education is much more expensive. There is a bachelor's degree (lasts from 4 to 7 years), a master's degree (2 years) and a doctoral or postgraduate education (2 years).

Healthcare

Healthcare in Egypt consists of both the public and private sectors. For several decades, the government has been providing a subsidized health care system that is designed to provide medical care to those who cannot afford it.

Public health is managed through the Ministry of Health. There are two main quasi-public insurers. The Health Insurance Organization (HIO) is the largest payer of public health along with the Organization for the Provision of Medical Care (CCO). Their services are provided in the form of a basic coverage. HIO covers 60% of the population, including employees, students and widows, through bonuses withheld from employee salaries and employer payslips. The organization manages its own network of medical institutions and sometimes contracts with private providers of medical services. The Medical Assistance Organization (CCO) offers inpatient and outpatient treatment in certain provinces under contracts with other legal entities and individuals.

There are also private insurance options and a network of private healthcare providers and medical facilities. The private sector includes commercial clinics, hospitals and pharmacies. It is believed that the private medical sector is superior to public services in terms of quality. Statistics show that the private sector is the initial choice of a healthcare provider in Egypt, even among the lowest income groups.

Almost all medical institutions are paid, with the exception of several hospitals designed to help the poorest segments of the population who are unable to pay for the services provided. At the same time, the sanitary condition of these hospitals leaves much to be desired, staffing is very low, and the material and technical base does not meet modern standards. There is practically no medical insurance system, with the exception of large companies that purchase insurance policies for their employees and conclude contracts for medical care with large clinics or multidisciplinary centers.

Private medical practice is very common, while information about good doctors is transmitted from one patient to another, Egyptians prefer to be treated "by acquaintance". A doctor's office is an ordinary apartment with several rooms, which two or three doctors of the same specialty buy or rent for private medical practice. Very often, Egyptian doctors both work in large clinics and engage in private medical practice in such small offices, where there are not even laboratories. If it is necessary to conduct an analysis, the patient is prescribed a referral with which he can apply to any laboratory he likes. By the way, they work from morning to evening, and some even around the clock.

Climate

Egypt is a country located in North Africa and the Sinai Peninsula of Asia, which is a country of two continents.

It borders Israel in the northeast, Sudan in the south, and Libya in the west. In the north, the territory is washed by the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, in the east — by the Red Sea. Both seas are connected by the artificially constructed Suez Canal. The population is 105 million people (according to data for 2022), the area of the territory is 1,001,450 km2. One of the two largest rivers in the world, the Nile, flows through Egypt from south to north. Egypt is a country with a developed tourism industry.

The climate in Egypt is continental, hot and arid. The narrow strip bordering the northern coast lies in the Mediterranean climate zone. The hot season is from July to October, and the cool season lasts from December to March. The coldest month is January. A significant decrease in temperature at night is typical for the desert.

From December to March, the average air temperature on the Red Sea coast is +23-25C degrees, the water in the Red Sea is +19-21C.
One of the features of Egypt's climate is the winds blowing almost all year round. The continuous wind on the shore of the Red Sea creates a feeling of coolness, but does not weaken the power of the sun's rays at all.

From March to May, a hot wind blows from the desert – "hasmin", carrying with it clouds of sand, the locals call it "sherd", the Bedouins "merissi", and the inhabitants of the desert – "simun". "Hasmin" blows from the southwest and begins with a sharp drop in atmospheric pressure, which is immediately followed by an increase in temperature: in a few minutes the temperature rises by 12 - 15 degrees. In spring there are sandstorms that last one or two days.

Precipitation is rare and irregular. The average annual precipitation in most of the country is less than 100 mm (in the Cairo area 28 mm), and in the north approx. 200 mm (in Alexandria – 190 mm), but in some years it can reach 400 mm.

The best time to visit Egypt is autumn and spring. The bathing season lasts in the country all year round. The Red Sea warms up well during the summer (up to +28C), and even in the winter months the water temperature does not fall below +20-21C degrees.
In winter, it is best to take warm clothes with you on a trip, since after sunset and at night the temperature can drop to +15C, during the day you can easily sunbathe even in February. In summer, the heat typical for these places at +33-37C degrees is tolerated quite easily, due to the dryness of the air.

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