Poland

Almost all Poles know not only Polish, but also English.

About Country

    Continent

    Europe

    Capital

    Warsaw

    Population

    37,846,611

    World share 

    0.5 %

    Land area

    306,230 km²

    Official Languages

    - Polish

    Unofficial Languages

    - Silesian

    Currency

    PLN

    Economy rating

    22

    Economy GDP

    642,121 millions USD

    ВВП на человека

    16,966 USD

Democracy Index

6.85

Flawed
democracy

*

Electoral process and pluralism

9.17
9.17

Functioning of government

5.71
5.71

Political participation

6.67
6.67

Political culture

5.63
5.63

Civil liberties

7.06
7.06

    Crime Rate

    0.7

    Safe zone

    Unemployment

    3.1 %

    Low unemployment

*

Average salary

1.81
1.81

Average expense

5
5

Average rent price

1.88
1.88

    Average salary

    1,273 USD

    Average expense

    464 USD

    Average rent price

    591 USD

Immigration

    Immigration difficulty

    Normal

    Recommended Savings

    6,329 USD

    Double citizenship

    Forbidden

    Official site

    Immigration official website

    Compulsory exams

    Polish Language, Constitution

    Passport rating

    10 Amount of countries: 182

Immigration options

Immigration typeRequired TimeFee
Employeefrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)
200 USD
Businessfrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)
200 USD
Marriagefrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)
200 USD
Family reunificationfrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)
200 USD
Studentfrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)
200 USD
Refugeenot regulated (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)
0 USD


Employee

Immigration feeImmigration Time
200 USDfrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
For National Visa:
- Passport (Identity card);
- An invitation from an employer;
- Residence documents;
- Documents confirming legal income;
- Medical insurance;
- Payment of fee - 60 euros;
- Photos of 3.5 by 4.5 cm format;
- Fingerprints (taken at the embassy or visa center).
For residence permit additionally needed:
- Application in 4 copies Resume (autobiography);
- Certificate from the police about the absence of a criminal record;
- Free-form application on the need to stay in the country;
- Payment of state duty (stamp duty) - 115 euros;
- Photos in digital form;
Additional Information:
First of all, you need to find an employer and sign a contract with him, after you can apply for national visa(D), and only after that you can apply for residence permit.

Business

Immigration feeImmigration Time
200 USDfrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
For National Visa:
- Passport (Identity card);
- Company registration documents;
- Residence documents;
- Documents confirming legal income;
- Medical insurance;
- Payment of fee - 60 euros;
- Photos of 3.5 by 4.5 cm format;
- Fingerprints (taken at the embassy or visa center).
For residence permit additionally needed:
- Application in 4 copies Resume (autobiography);
- Certificate from the police about the absence of a criminal record;
- Free-form application on the need to stay in the country;
- Payment of state duty (stamp duty) - 115 euros;
- Photos in digital form;
Additional Information:
If you can make something out of nothing, business immigration is the way to go. I remind you that the business must work, and not just be only on paper, otherwise you will go home very quickly.

Marriage

Immigration feeImmigration Time
200 USDfrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
For National Visa:
- Application in 4 copies Resume (autobiography);
- Passport (Identity card);
- Marriage certificate;
- Residence documents;
- Medical insurance;
- Documents confirming legal income;
- Payment of fee - 60 euros;
- Photos in digital form;
- Fingerprints (taken at the embassy or visa center).
For residence permit additionally needed:
- Application in 4 copies Resume (autobiography);
- Certificate from the police about the absence of a criminal record;
- Free-form application on the need to stay in the country;
- Payment of state duty (stamp duty) - 115 euros;
- Photos in digital form;
Additional Information:
For those who found their love in Poland - immigration through marriage. You need to get a category D visa, on the basis of it you apply for a residence permit and then permanent residence and citizenship.

Family reunification

Immigration feeImmigration Time
200 USDfrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
For National Visa:
- Application in 4 copies Resume (autobiography);
- Passport (Identity card);
- Documentary evidence of kinship;
- Residence documents;
- Medical insurance;
- Documents confirming legal income;
- Payment of fee - 60 euros;
- Photos in digital form;
- Fingerprints (taken at the embassy or visa center).
For residence permit additionally needed:
- Application in 4 copies Resume (autobiography);
- Certificate from the police about the absence of a criminal record;
- Free-form application on the need to stay in the country;
- Payment of state duty (stamp duty) - 115 euros;
- Photos in digital form;
Additional Information:
In this method, everything is as usual, need to prove that your relative is a Pole and you can go to your small homeland.

Student

Immigration feeImmigration Time
200 USDfrom 1 to 3 months (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
For National Visa:
- Passport (Identity card);
- An invitation from a university;
- Residence documents;
- Documents confirming legal income;
- Medical insurance;
- Payment of fee - 60 euros;
- Photos of 3.5 by 4.5 cm format;
- Fingerprints (taken at the embassy or visa center).
For residence permit additionally needed:
- Application in 4 copies Resume (autobiography);
- Certificate from the police about the absence of a criminal record;
- Free-form application on the need to stay in the country;
- Payment of state duty (stamp duty) - 115 euros;
- Photos in digital form;
Additional Information:
If you want to study in Poland, you need to find an educational institution, enroll, get a category D visa and then apply for a residence permit.

Refugee

Immigration feeImmigration Time
0 USDnot regulated (paperwork)
8 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Asylum application;
- Evidence of the persecution and violation of rights.
Additional Information:
An asylum application is submitted immediately at the border to the Commander-in-Chief of the Border Services or in the border area. The application is considered in the shortest possible time and case of a positive decision, the refugee is issued a temporary identity card of a foreigner. After applying, a foreigner is sent to a distribution center, and from there to refugee camps. A few months later, the refugee is invited to the Department of Refugee Status Procedures for an interview. With a positive outcome, the foreigner receives a temporary residence permit for two years with the right to work and study, also for his family members.

Immigration process

National visa.
This type of visa will be needed for foreigners who plan to visit relatives, work, study, conduct business, participate in various events in Poland. Visa "D" implies a longer stay in the country and serves as the basis for obtaining a temporary residence permit. With a national visa, a non-resident can: stay in the country for up to 180 days per half-year travel to other Schengen countries. But no more than 3 months in six months. In addition to standard documents (passport, health insurance, tickets, fingerprinting, and application), additional documents will be required.
To apply for a Polish national visa you must have:
Employment - a work contract concluded with an employer.
Student - an official invitation from the university.
Relatives - confirmation of family ties with a person living in Poland.
Businessmen - an invitation from a partner company or documents on opening their organization.
Trips to events (concerts, exhibitions, competitions, sports competitions, conferences) - an invitation from the organizers.

Applying for a Polish national visa will cost 60 euros and take up to 30 days.

Immigration to Poland: temporary residence permit is the first step towards citizenship. Polish residence permit is issued for a period of one to three years with a further possibility of extension.

The situations in which a foreigner obtains a temporary residence permit:
1. Family reunion. To obtain a residence permit, you must provide documentary evidence of kinship (marriage certificate, birth certificate).
2. Employment (you must have a work contract in hand).
3. Studying at a Polish university. An official invitation to study from the university must be attached to the application for a residence permit.
4. Business. Entrepreneurs are issued a temporary residence permit for one year. It can be extended by proving the company's annual turnover of 16 thousand euros and hiring two employees.


The application review process can take up to 3 months. With a positive decision, a foreigner receives a temporary resident card.
A foreigner who has lived in Poland for 5 years with a residence permit may apply for a permanent residence permit. It gives the right to quality free medical care, social insurance, and free education in primary, secondary, and higher Polish educational institutions. The minimum period for consideration of an application for permanent residence is 3 months. Permanent residence in Poland is indefinite, but the permanent resident card itself must be changed every 10 years.
After 8 years of residence in Poland (5 years for a residence permit and 3 years for permanent residence), a foreigner can apply for citizenship (dual citizenship is allowed). In addition to standard documents and confirmation of a legal source of income, you will need a certificate of passing an exam in the Polish language and the Polish Constitution. You will also need a certificate of family composition and no criminal record. The term for consideration takes an average of 3 months to 1 year.
According to Polish law, children receive citizenship:
- if one of the parents is a citizen of the Republic of Poland;
- if both parents are non-residents, but the child was born in the country;
- adopted children.
Citizenship can also be claimed by descendants of Polish citizens who were born and lived in Poland before 1939.

Tourism
To visit Poland, tourists will need a standard Schengen visa. It serves only for short-term tourist trips.
The visa can be single or multiple ("multi-Schengen"). A multiple-entry visa is issued for a period of 6 months to 3 years with the right to stay in Poland and the entire Schengen area for no more than 90 days per six months.
Documents required for obtaining a Polish Schengen visa:
1. Questionnaire Identity card.
2. Help from the place of work. The document must indicate the amount of salary. It is also desirable to provide a bank statement.
3. Color photographs (digital).
4. Dactyloscopy (fingerprints).
5. Medical insurance (for all days of the trip) with a minimum amount of coverage of 30 thousand euros.
6. Confirmation of payment of the consular fee (35 euros).
7. Confirmation of booking tickets and accommodation.

The processing time usually takes 5 to 10 business days.

To obtain the SBM, you will need an identity card and a questionnaire. "Small border movement" should not be confused with the Schengen visa, as it gives the right to move only in some border areas of Poland. For travel throughout the country and other European countries, you will need a standard Schengen visa.

Taxes

Taxes in Poland are quite modest and correspond to the national baseline for all EU countries, so they can be called friendly to all taxpayers, regardless of category. The only thing that causes inconvenience is the calculation them on your own. However, if you encounter difficulties with this task, there are two solutions: The first is to seek help from the Ministry of Finance. This option will take several months, but it guarantees that the taxpayer will not have problems associated with arrears or errors in calculations. The second is to transfer tax calculations (or even the maintenance of all accounting) to the side.

The tax for the workers is progressive, for 2021 if you receive less than 3091 PLN (~752 USD) per year, then you are free as the wind, there are no taxes.
If from PLN 3,091 (~752 USD) to PLN 85,528 (~20,808 USD) per year, then the tax will be 17%, and if higher, then you will receive 32% tax, take this into account when applying for a job.

Business taxes in Poland are relatively low, especially when compared directly with similar fees in other EU countries. Income tax rate in Poland Standard (typical) - 19%. For small companies and new businesses, a preferential rate of 9% is provided for the first year of operation. Withholding tax rate Standard (typical) - 20%. The tax period is 12 months, which may not coincide with the calendar year. Tax advances are paid monthly/quarterly, annual reconciliation is required. Declarations, accruals Taxes in Poland, as well as possible deductions and benefits, are calculated by the payer. The deadline for filing the declaration is the last day of the third month of the year following the calendar year (most often March 31th). The extension is not allowed. Tax advance payments Calculated and paid every month/quarter. Paid out of profits if the standard corporate tax in Poland (19%) is applied. It is important to remember that in this case, exceptions to the standard EU parent-subsidiary directive may apply.

Benefits and incentives of Special economic zones. Formally, the entire territory of Poland is part of it, but the actual amount of state aid may differ by region. The final decision is made by a special agency. The tax rate on dividends is 19%.

Taxes in Poland for non-resident companies are paid only from domestic income. As a rule (but not always) the same calculation rules apply as for residents. The tax on the income of a permanent establishment is 19%. The source of calculation is a tax return filled out by the owner of the business or a person hired by him independently. Tax at source is also standard - 19%.

If your company has a limited partnership format, then you can no longer count on the privileges of transparent companies (tax transparent companies). They now have standard CIT taxpayer status. For general partnerships, this does not matter, but the limited liability format now generates double taxes in Poland.

Small Taxpayers. The basic qualification condition is that sales income (including VAT) does not exceed EUR 2 million in the previous financial year. The main benefits are a special quarterly tax regime in Poland, a 9% tax rate, and a one-time depreciation of some fixed assets. Tax investment fund The conditions are the same as for the Estonian CIT. The company receives the right to create a special investment fund and make contributions to it. Such a deduction may be tax-deductible. The condition is investment costs. The practical benefit of the scheme is the immediate depreciation of fixed assets.

Education

The education system in Poland, as well as in other countries, is a long ladder leading children to an independent life.

First, children are sent to Przedszkole - preschool education (3 years). The first rung of the education ladder is the equivalent of the kindergartens we are accustomed to. Children from 3 to 6 years old go there, while six-year-old children cannot go to school right away: before that, they must go to the "zero" class. Then they go to Szkoіa podstawowa – School (8 years). It's divided into two stages. At the first (1-4 grades)- classes are held in the form of integrated education, that is, without a clear division into subjects, and one teacher conducts classes. After that they prepare children to the special test organized by the Central Examination Commission, which they take after grade eighth. There's only three exams - Polish, mathematics and a foreign language. By the way, foreign students receive some benefits when passing the exam (more time, separate papers and paper dictionaries). There is NO minimum passing score for the eighth grader exam.

After graduating from eighth grade, children can go to the one of the following options:

Szkoіy ponadgimnazjalne - lyceums, technical schools, or vocational schools. The most popular of them are lyceums. Their main goal is to prepare students for Matura- a set of exams that test the knowledge of students after graduating. Admission to the university depends on the results of this exam, so the entire last academic year is allocated for preparation. One can pass Matura if its result exceeds 30%. All exams (Math, Polish, English and one to choose from) can also be taken at the advanced level, but it still have to be taken twice: at the basic and advanced levels.

And then, at the age of 19-20, Polish residents approach the beginning of higher education.
Szkoіy Wyїsze - Institutions of Higher Education. In Poland, which is part of the Bologna Process, higher education takes place at two levels: bachelor (3 years) and master (additional 2 years), except for technical specialties (4 years). In some specialties (for example, law or psychology), education takes 5 years of an indivisible magistracy. At state universities, Polish citizens have the opportunity to study free of charge in Polish on a competitive basis, but foreigners students must have a Pole's Card or political asylum in Poland. Except for the EU citizens, of course. However, many universities announce a special competition for free places for foreign candidates.

Healthcare

Poland has universal insurance, a network of public clinics and hospitals, and private medical centers. Most residents of the country are insured and can be treated free of charge. It is possible to pay for state insurance on your own or purchase private insurance. There are also family doctors, the so-called first contact doctors. They can either prescribe treatment or refer you for specialist advice. If the case does not look urgent, then you can wait for a consultation with a specialist doctor or an examination for a long time — up to 2-3 months.

Without a referral from a family doctor, you can only contact such specialists as an obstetrician-gynecologist, oncologist, psychiatrist and dentist. For a fee, you can contact any specialist even today, as well as undergo any examination. Just like private health insurance.

The healthcare system in Poland is financed mainly by taxpayers. All those who officially work based on an employment contract are subject to compulsory health insurance. And every month their employer transfers 9% of their income to the National Health Fund (NFZ). The insured may include non-working family members in his insurance, this will not increase the amount of tax. In addition to employees under an employment contract, who are required to make contributions to the health fund, NFZ insurance is also received by: entrepreneurs (they are also required to make contributions) pensioners and those who receive an annuity (cannot work due to disability) children and students (does not apply to foreign) pregnant women (also only with Polish citizenship) people on unemployment records soldiers, border guards clergymen farmers and their families judges and prosecutors. The hospital usually does not require any proof that you are insured.

All information is in a single database based on the PESEL number (an identification number that every Pole has and can be obtained by a foreigner).

If you pay NFZ insurance premiums for a long time, their amount may decrease. Treatment in Poland is also possible with the use of compulsory car insurance - if the cause of illness/injury was a traffic accident. In this case, it does not matter whether the victim is insured — the funds for treatment, if the documents are properly executed, are transferred from the account of the insurer, where the driver of the car that caused the accident was insured. In this case, it is not necessary to have accident insurance, but the so-called auto clinic (OS — odpowiedzialnoњж cywilna) is enough. If you are in Poland with a temporary or permanent residence permit and are insured in the NFZ, you are entitled to free treatment in other EU countries. But before leaving, you need to contact ZUS (the government agency that deals with insurance and pensions) and get an EKUZ card there for free. By presenting this card you will be able to apply for treatment free of charge in any EU country.

There are also plenty of private health insurances, the prices are usually very attractive: from PLN 30 to 250, depending on the package. Such insurances are cheaper than NFZ, but they have many restrictions.

All children under 18 years of age are entitled to free health care under the NFZ. But this does not apply to foreigners(from non-EU countries).

The mandatory NFZ insurance includes dentistry. Interestingly, there are no state dental clinics in Poland. But there are a lot of private ones and most of them cooperate with NFZ. It is important to note that under the NFZ, dental care is limited. Additional services are also available for children and adolescents under 18 years of age. As soon as you are insured in the NFZ, we recommend that you go to a polyclinic (przychodnia) and join a family doctor. You can change your appointment with a family doctor twice a year free of charge, then for PLN 80. The exception is if you have moved.

It is possible to call a doctor home from the clinic if the patient does not feel well enough to come on their own. The doctor may refuse a home visit if they don't see sufficient evidence or if they have numerous calls. Some private clinics and doctors will come home without any problems, for example, to a child with a cough or fever. But it will cost 200-400 zі.

The pandemic gave impetus to the development of telemedicine — doctors from polyclinics consult and write prescriptions over the phone, give directions for tests. Polyclinics in Poland, as a rule, work from 8 to 18 hours. At the time when they are closed, in case of a sudden deterioration in health, one should contact special medical aid points, which are open from 18:00 to 06:00, as well as on holidays. Such points are located at large hospitals. Important: do not confuse it with SORs — emergency departments at hospitals. SOR is an analog of an ambulance, you have to go there in case of a life threat. SORs work around the clock. In such places, as a rule, there are queues for several hours, especially on holidays.

The number of an ambulance is 999 or 112. Among the reasons for calling an ambulance: loss of consciousness convulsions sudden and severe chest pain severe heart rhythm disorder acute pain in the abdomen vomiting with blood heavy bleeding accident injury If you do not have any insurance, you will, in any case, receive emergency care in a Polish hospital. But not for free.

Climate

The Polish climate is temperate, transitioning from maritime to continental. The weather here is extremely unpredictable and is characterized by its sharp drops, which is explained by the dry continental air of Eurasia and the country's position in the air mass circulation zone over the Atlantic Ocean. Winter in Poland can be especially unpredictable. Sometimes it can be wet and sometimes dry. But not only winter is distinguished here by its unpredictability. Summers can be hot and dry for several years, but the next year will suddenly bring the cold of early spring. This phenomenon is cyclical, each cycle can last for several years. The warmest cities are Tarnow, Legnica and Wroclaw.

In total, 3 climatic zones can be distinguished in Poland: the central lowland regions, the southern mountainous regions, and the Baltic coast. The most unstable of all is the last one, the Baltic climate. In January, which is the coldest month of the year, the average temperature is around -2°C. In winter, the temperature variation is small: during the day it is about +1...+3°C, and at night -2...-4°C. The warmest month is July and its average temperature is +17°C. In the middle of the day, the temperature of the thermometer shows from +20 to +23°C, while at night it is +10...+13°C. The maximum precipitation occurs in July and August, and the minimum - in March.

Next, the Central Plain Territories. In terms of average temperature, they do not differ much from the Baltic coast, but the annual rainfall in this area is much less. Most of them are in July and the least in February-March. The average temperature in January is -2°C, while during the day it is about 0°C, and at night it is only -4...-6°C. The warmest month is also July, with an average temperature of +24°C during the day and +14°C at night.

Finally, the Southern Highlands is characterized by cool summers and snowy and sunny winters. The average January temperature here is -5°C. The daytime temperature is usually at a minimum minus, and at night it drops to -10°C. In July, the average daytime temperature is +20°C, at night - +10°C. The mountains receive the most rainfall than anywhere else in Poland, especially in July. The driest month is January.

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