Turkey

Turkey is home to two of the 7 wonders of the world.

About Country

    Continent

    Asia

    Capital

    Ankara

    Population

    84,339,067

    World share 

    1.1 %

    Land area

    769,630 km²

    Official Languages

    - Turkish

    Unofficial Languages

    - Kurdish

    Currency

    TRY

    Economy rating

    63

    Economy GDP

    79,453 millions USD

    ВВП на человека

    942 USD

Democracy Index

4.48

Hybrid
regime

*

Electoral process and pluralism

3.5
3.5

Functioning of government

5.36
5.36

Political participation

5.56
5.56

Political culture

5.63
5.63

Civil liberties

2.35
2.35

    Crime Rate

    2.6

    Safe zone

    Unemployment

    12.7 %

    High unemployment

Expense and Salary

4.28

Middling

*

Average salary

1.07
1.07

Average expense

5.83
5.83

Average rent price

5.93
5.93

    Average salary

    754 USD

    Average expense

    333 USD

    Average rent price

    187 USD

Immigration

    Immigration difficulty

    Normal

    Recommended Savings

    3,119 USD

    Double citizenship

    Allowed

    Official site

    Immigration official website

    Compulsory exams

    Passport rating

    54 Amount of countries: 110

Immigration options

Immigration typeRequired TimeFee
Marriagefrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
3 years (for citizenship)
50 USD
Employeefrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
50 USD
Studentfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
50 USD
Investmentsfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
50 USD
Family reunificationfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
50 USD
Real estate investmentsfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)
50 USD
Fast passfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
3-6 months (for citizenship)
50 USD


Marriage

Immigration feeImmigration Time
50 USDfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
3 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- Marriage certificate;
- Certificate of absence of dangerous infectious diseases;
- Official address.
Additional Information:
Getting married to a Turkish citizen is one of the most popular ways to move to the country. Marriage can be concluded in any country, but marriage in Turkey gives a foreigner advantages: A residence permit is issued faster, and the status is maintained even in case of divorce. The main thing is that the marriage should be real, not fictitious.

Employee

Immigration feeImmigration Time
50 USDfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- Work contract in Turkey;
- Application from the employer;
- Diploma/certificate translated into Turkish and notarized;
- Certificate of the company indicating the type of activity.
Additional Information:
You can get a residence permit if you are employed in Turkey.
First you will need to find a vacancy and sign a contract with an employer. The advantage will be for those who know Turkish or at least English, have a sought-after qualification, can confirm a diploma.

Student

Immigration feeImmigration Time
50 USDfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Invitation from the university;
- Contract with the university (tuition is paid);
- Information about the address of residence.
Additional Information:
The student residence permit applies to students of universities, colleges and full-time language courses in Turkey.
International students can work, but they will need to obtain a permit for this.

Investments

Immigration feeImmigration Time
50 USDfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Bank statement;
- Registration documents for the company;
- Certificate from the tax authorities, bank account statement;
- Certificates of investments made.
Additional Information:
You can get a residence permit through investing.
You can invest $ 250,000 in real estate and sell it no earlier than in 3 years. Or invest $ 1,000,000, creating jobs for Turkish citizens for an accelerated registration regime in the state.
Turkey strictly ensures that the business is real. The applicant for a residence permit will need to open an account in a Turkish bank, rent an office in the country, organize jobs. Company registration takes only a couple of weeks.

Family reunification

Immigration feeImmigration Time
50 USDfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Financial documents: bank statement with bank seal;
- A document confirming the relationship;
- Certificate of absence of dangerous infectious diseases;
- Official address.
Additional Information:
You can move to Turkey and get a residence permit if you have relatives in the country.
The program is suitable if you are a parent, spouse, child of a Turkish citizen.
The inviting relative will need to confirm the availability of living space for the family owned or rented and the required level of income – each family member must have at least 1/3 of the minimum wage and at least 1 minimum wage in total.

Real estate investments

Immigration feeImmigration Time
50 USDfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
5 years (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- A bank statement indicating the availability of funds for life (at the rate of $6000 per year per person);
- INN (taxpayer number);
- A copy of TAPU;
- A certificate from the Cadastral Office that the TAPU is valid.
Additional Information:
A residence permit in Turkey can be obtained by a buyer of real estate of any value.
A work permit with him must be requested separately.

Fast pass

Immigration feeImmigration Time
50 USDfrom 20 to 60 days (paperwork)
3-6 months (for citizenship)

List of documents:
- Completed questionnaire;
- International passport;
- 2 color photos;
- Receipt of payment of the fee;
- General civil passport;
- Medical insurance;
- Certificate of no criminal record;
- Bank statement;
- Registration documents for the company;
- Certificate from the tax authorities, bank account statement;
- Certificates of investments made.
Additional Information:
To obtain citizenship by investment, one of the investment requirements must be met:

- Invest from USD 400,000 in Turkish real estate
- Invest from USD 500,000 in the fixed capital of a Turkish enterprise
- Make a deposit of USD 500,000 to a Turkish bank account
- Invest at least USD 500,000 in government bonds
- Invest at least USD 500,000 in a share of a real estate investment fund or a venture fund
- Create jobs for 50 Turkish citizens.

Taxes

A little bit about the main taxes in Turkey.

The income tax rate for individuals in Turkey is progressive and depends on the amount of annual profit. The minimum income tax for individuals in Turkey is 15%, and the maximum is 40%.

Capital Gains Tax in Turkey
Such tax is paid on the profit generated in the course of a certain transaction. For example, the capital gains tax on the sale of real estate is from 15% to 40%.

Tax on interest and dividends in Turkey
The interest tax is charged at a rate from 0 to 15%. For non-resident investors, the maximum tariff is applied. In other cases, the rate depends on the maturity of deposits – the longer the term, the lower the tax.
The tax on dividends in Turkey is calculated only on 1/2 of the total amount at a rate of 10%. If the profit from dividends and income from other sources of citizens in total is more than 70,000 TL (3,758 USD), then such profit is subject to declaration.

Customs duties
Starting from May 2022, the customs duty for individuals in Turkey is charged at a rate of 30%, as for goods worth from 150 € imported from a non-EU country.

Inheritance tax and gift tax in Turkey
The gift and inheritance tax rate in Turkey has floating rates depending on the value of the object of donation/inheritance.

Property taxes in Turkey
Taxes on the purchase and sale of real estate (buildings and land) in Turkey are paid according to the following scheme:
- Tax on transfer of ownership – 4%.
- VAT, which is charged separately when buying a home on the secondary market or is included in the total cost of the object when buying on the primary. The VAT rate for residential, commercial properties and land in Turkey is:
1% — the area of the object up to 150 m2;
8% — for housing over 150 m2;
18% — for commercial facilities.
- Stamp duty is paid at the conclusion of a purchase and sale transaction in the amount of 0.1% to 0.6%, depending on the estimated value.
- The state fee for the issuance of property rights (TAPU) — today is $ 130 for non-residents of Turkey and $ 45 for residents.
- Tax on rental income from real estate in Turkey is NOT levied on individuals if the amount of annual profit is no more than 6600 TL (355 USD) (for residential properties) and no more than 49,000 TL (2,630 USD) (for commercial). In other cases, the income tax on rent can reach 40% and is calculated on a progressive scale, starting from 15%. Legal entities-landlords of residential and commercial properties in Turkey pay income tax at a rate of 23%.
- The tax that must be paid after the sale of housing or land in Turkey by an individual has a rate from 15% to 35% and is mandatory only if the period of ownership is less than 5 years. For legal entities, the fixed rate is 23%.

Education

In Turkey, the education system consists of 4 main stages: preschool, primary, secondary and higher education. There are both public and private institutions.

Preschool education
There are public and private kindergartens in Turkey. It is not necessary to attend kindergartens, parents can themselves engage in the development of the child before school.
There are children aged from 3 to 5 years.
The cost of a private kindergarten in Turkey is 1400 USD per year.

The system of primary and secondary education in Turkey includes a 12-year cycle, which is divided into 3 stages: primary school, secondary school, lyceum.

Primary education
Primary education – 8 years – includes 4 years of compulsory education in primary school and 4 years of compulsory education in secondary school or imam-khatib schools (with an advanced course in Islam). Designed for teaching children aged 6 to 14 years. According to Turkish law, children are admitted to primary schools after they reach the age of 5.5 years.

Secondary education
Secondary education lasts four years and consists of four-year general education, vocational and technical secondary schools (lyceums). Students of ordinary secondary schools are preparing for admission to colleges and universities. Some secondary schools and private secondary schools offer preparatory programs in foreign languages. These private lyceums provide bilingual education (for example, Italian secondary school, German secondary school, Austrian secondary school, French secondary school, and so on). Vocational technical lyceums provide specialized training of skilled workers.

Higher education
The sphere of higher education in Turkey is represented by several types of educational institutions: universities, military and police schools and academies, higher vocational training schools. To enter all of them, it is necessary to get a full secondary education and pass entrance exams. In universities in Turkey, as well as in universities in other countries, you can get 3 academic degrees — the basic one is a bachelor's degree. To get it, you need to study for 4 years. Obtaining a master's degree will require another 2 years, and a doctorate degree — 5 years (2 years of master's degree + 3 years of doctoral studies) and writing a dissertation. In addition to universities, applicants have the opportunity to enroll in one of the higher professional schools that train specialists in working specialties in various fields. In this case, the training will take 2 years. Higher education in Turkey is paid, but, often, if a talented student or a student demonstrating high academic performance does not have the opportunity to pay for tuition, large companies interested in obtaining young highly qualified specialists, or even the state assume obligations to pay for tuition. At the moment, there are about 118 universities operating in Turkey, most of which are state-owned. While the cost of studying at public universities is quite low, a year of study at a private university can cost up to $15,000.

Healthcare

Medical services in Turkey are provided by public, semi-public, private and non-profit foundations. Medical services are financed by taxes, social security contributions, private insurance contributions and out-of-pocket payments.

Turkey has a system of compulsory medical insurance SGK for residents of the country. Insurance allows you to be treated free of charge in public clinics and buy medicines on a doctor's prescription for a fifth of the cost.

Also, the SGK policy covers up to 80% of the cost of services of private clinics that participate in the CHI system. The system of compulsory medical insurance covers the costs of treatment of any diseases, including chronic ones: diabetes mellitus, oncology, cardiovascular diseases.

All residents of the country are required to register in the CHI system. The insurance of the head of the family applies to his spouse and to children under 18 years of age. If the children are studying at a university or college, then the parents' insurance covers them up to 25 years.

Contributions to the CHI fund are deducted monthly by the employer from the employee's salary. Individual entrepreneurs and the self-employed transfer contributions to the fund independently.

Foreigners with a residence permit can register in the MHI system of Turkey after a year of living in the country. To do this, you need to contact the Social Security department. Foreigners who have been living in Turkey for less than a year apply for a voluntary health insurance policy.

Voluntary insurance
The policy covers the services of private clinics with which the insurance company has a contract. VMI allows you to be treated in more comfortable conditions, for example, not to wait two weeks for an appointment at a state clinic. The VMI policy does not cover the treatment of chronic diseases and oncology.

A voluntary health insurance policy will be needed to obtain a residence permit or Turkish citizenship. The approximate cost of insurance for a residence permit and citizenship is $ 150. As a rule, the minimum insurance covers 40-60% of the cost of outpatient treatment and up to 100% of inpatient treatment. The insurance covers the whole family: spouse and children under 18 years of age.

Turkey occupies a leading position in the world in the field of healthcare for the following reasons: the high level of services provided, a mild favorable climate and an advantageous geographical location at the intersection of 3 continents, where 1.5 billion people live, who can fly to Turkey in a maximum of just 4 hours.

One of the key factors why Turkey is one of the leading countries in the world in terms of the healthcare system is the experience and level of training of doctors. The profession of a doctor in Turkey is honorable and prestigious, so successful and intelligent school graduates often choose medical universities for admission.

Climate

The weather in Turkey depends on the region, as the climate in the country is mostly mountainous with continental features. Summers in Turkey are hot and dry, winters are snowy and cold. The holiday season in Turkey starts in April and ends only in November.

The Aegean and Mediterranean seas have a Mediterranean climate with mild winters. The Black Sea has a temperate maritime climate with warm summers and cool winters. In January, the temperature is about +5 C, in summer (in July) — about +23 C. Precipitation falls up to 1000-2500 mm per year. In summer, the temperature can exceed +30 C, but this is relatively rare. In the south-east of Turkey, the climate has the features of a tropical desert with low humidity.

The best time to visit beach resorts is from mid—April to the end of October, the height of the season falls on the last decade of May — mid-September. It is best to swim in the resorts of the Black Sea — from June to early September, in the Marmara and Mediterranean Seas — from April to October. The hottest months in Turkey are July and August, when the air temperature can rise to +28 C.

In the south and west of the country, summers are hot and dry, and winters are mild, so this region is even called the Turkish Riviera. The air temperature in summer here can rise to +35 C, and the water in the sea warms up to +26 C. In the north of Turkey, the climate is Black Sea — colder winters and not very hot summers with prolonged rains. The average January temperature in this region ranges between +5...+15 S, and July — between +15...+32 S.

In Turkey, plants characteristic of the subtropics predominate. Thyme and laurel predominate in the foothills, and coniferous plants are higher up. The tulip is the most famous. On the Black Sea coast of Turkey, humid subtropics prevail with forests of oak, maple, sycamore, dogwood, boxwood, laurel, evergreen shrubs, ivy and wild grapes grow. Higher up in the mountains, these forests turn into beech and coniferous (mainly fir), and then the zone of alpine meadows begins.

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